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İSTANBUL
 Turkey

Istanbul metro tram map

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 ISTANBUL

With approx. 12 million inhabitants in the metropolitan area, Istanbul is the biggest city in Turkey, mostly situated on the European continent. Traffic conditions in this densely populated city are getting worse while construction of a modern mass transit system is only progressing slowly.

The first underground line dates back to the 19th century. This is the funicular subway called "Tünel" which opened in 1875. Still today this short line (573 m) is an important means of urban transport as it surmounts a difference in altitude of 60 m. Trains operate every 3.5 minutes and a trip takes 1.5 minutes. The upper station is linked to Taksim Square by a vintage tram. In the 1990's also a modern tram line was put into service through the older parts of the city; this tram is gradually being extended to other parts of the city. In Oct 2013, the 13 km Bosphorus underwater rail link (Marmaray) opened, which will ultimately link the suburban rail lines operated by Turkish State Railways. Track gauge on all different rail systems is 1435 mm.

 Metro M1

In 1989 a light metro line (Hafif Metro - M1) was opened from Aksaray towards the western suburbs. Until 1995 it was extended to Yenibosna. After reaching the airport (Havalimani station) in 2002, it had a total length of 20 km with 18 stops. The Esenler branch was eventually extended to Kirazli and became branch line M1b. The line is totally segregated from other traffic without level crossings and runs underground for several km (Aksaray - Ulubatli Topkapi, 3.1 km; Bakirköy - Bahçelievler, 1.8 km; Havalimani, 0.3 km; Esenler - Kirazli ~ 4.5 km). Platform length is 100 m.

Yenikapi - Otogar: 8.4 km; Otogar - Havalimani: 11.6 km; Otogar - Kirazli: 5.5 km = 25.5 km

03 Sept 1989: Aksaray - Kartaltepe
18 Dec 1989: Kartaltepe - Esenler
31 Jan 1994: Otogar - Zeytinburnu
07 Mar 1994: Zeytinburnu - Bakirköy
26 July 1995: Bakirköy
- Ataköy
25 Aug 1995: Ataköy - Yenibosna
15 Jan 1999: Bahçelievler station added
20 Dec 2002: Yenibosna - Havalimani (Airport)
14 June 2013: Esenler - Kirazli (M1b branch, 4.8 km)
09 Nov 2014: Aksaray - Yenikapi (0.8 km)

 Metro M2

Construction of the first full metro line (M2) started in 1991 and the first section between Taksim and Levent opened after some delays in September 2000. All stations have escalators and an elevator to provide full accessibility for the disabled. The original section was built by the cut-and-cover method to withstand earthquakes up to magnitude 9. Stations look similar, although a different colour was chosen for each of them. Platform length is 180 m.

Later, the line was extended in several stages northeast to Haciosman, while a 1-km branch from Sanayi to Seyrantepe was added in 2010, which primarily serves the new Galatasaray football stadium opened in 2011.

The 1.6 km southwestern extension from Taksim to Sishane was initially operated as a shuttle service until the Yenikapi extension, which includes a purpose-built bridge over the Golden Horn (Haliç), was completed in 2014.

Total length of the line M2 is 23.5 km with 16 stations (2014).

16 Sept 2000: Taksim - Levent
24 Oct 2000: Levent - 4. Levent
30 Jan 2009: 4. Levent - Atatürk Oto Sanayi
30 Jan 2009: Taksim - Sishane
02 Sept 2010: Atatürk Oto Sanayi - Darüssafaka
11 Nov 2010: Sanayi Mah. - Seyrantepe branch
29 April 2011: Darüssafaka - Haciosman
15 Feb 2014: Sishane - Yenikapi (3.5 km, including Golden Horn bridge)
16 Mar 2014: Vezneciler station added

 Metro M3

14 June 2013: Kirazli - MetroKent (Basaksehir)
22 Nov 2013: Ikitelli Sanayi - Olimpiyat

- 15.9 km
- 180 m long platforms for 8-car trains

M3 Kirazli M3 Turgut Özal M3 Turgut Özal
 Metro M4

First metro line on the Asian side of Istanbul, departing from the ferry terminal at Kadiköy and running fully underground south to Kartal (2016: 26.5 km)

17 Aug 2012: Kadiköy - Kartal (22 km)
29 Oct 2013: Ayrilikcesme station added
10 Oct 2016: Kartal - Tavsantepe (4.5 km)

 Metro M6

19 April 2015: Levent - Bogazici Üniversitesi (Hisarüstü)

- 3.3 km, basically single-track with passing loops at intermediate stations, operated with two shuttle trains

 Light Rail T4

This line was opened in 2007, running from the edge of the old city towards the northern suburbs. The line is referred to as the Sultançiftligi-Edirnekapi line, it was initially 12.4 km long (with 5.8 km underground) and has some level crossings. Although it is officially classified as a 'tramway' (T4), it uses the same rolling stock as Metro M1. A 2.3 km extension was added in 2009, providing transfer to line M1 and the tramway.

10 Sept 2007: Sehitlik - Mescid-i Selam
18 Mar 2009: Sehitlik - Topkapi

 Tram T1

The present modern tram line T1 (18.2 km) was opened in 1992 between Sirkeci and Topkapi and subsequently extended from both ends. Temporarily operated with high-floor vehicles (like those in service on M1), it is now served by Bombardier Flexity Swift low-floor trams. Line T2, which had opened in September 2006 from Zeytinburnu to Bagcilar, was connected to T1 in early 2011, and the single line is operated with low-floor vehicles, both from Bombardier and Alstom (Citadis).

 Tram T2

Although not shown with this line number on official maps, the T2 is the heritage tram line (1.5 km) which connects the top station of the Tünel Funicular to Taksim Square; opened in 1990, single-track.

 

Taksim Square Galatasaray
 Tram T3

Nostalgic Moda tramway opened in 2003: single-track 2.6 km circular line on the Asian side of Istanbul in Kadiköy. Trams run in a clockwise direction stopping at Kadiköy (ferry and M4) - Iskele Camii - Çarsi - Altiyol - Bahariye - Kilise - Moda Ilkokulu - Moda - Mühürdar - Damga Sokak before returning to Kadiköy.

Kadiköy Kadiköy
 F1 Taksim - Kabatas Füniküler

Modern funicular subway opened in June 2006: about 600 m long, difference in altitude of 60 m.

 

Kabatas Taksim
 F2 Tünel

Funicular subway opened in 1875: on its 573 m route it negotiates a difference in altitude of 60 m.

 

Tünel Tünel

 Marmaray - Suburban Rail

On 29 Oct 2013, the long planned underwater Bosphorus rail crossing, referred to as 'Marmaray', the construction of which had started in May 2004, was opened. The project includes a 13.3 km Istanbul Strait crossing and the upgrade of 63 km of suburban lines to create a 76.3 km high capacity line between Gebze and Halkali. The Istanbul Strait crossing was realised by means of a 1.8 km earthquake-proof immersed tube tunnel, assembled from 18 sections. This underwater tunnel is linked to bored tunnels from Kazliçesme on the European side and Ayrilik Çesmesi on the Asian side of Istanbul. Intermediate underground stations were built at Yenikapi, Sirkeci and Uskudar (Sirkeci only opened on 1 Dec 2013). The Yenikapi hub includes the termini for metro lines M1 and M2. The upgrade of the suburban lines requires the laying of a third track along most of the way to increase the line capacity up to 75,000 passengers per hour in each direction. The automatic train control system provided by Siemens (Trainguard Sirius) allows a train every 2 minutes.

By 2015, the existing suburban rail lines, one on the European side (Sirkeci - Halkali, 27.5 km, every 20 min), and one on the Asian side (Hayderpasa - Gebze, 44 km, every 20 min) will be upgraded and then linked to the Marmaray tunnel. The intercontinental rail tunnel will also be used by long-distance trains.

 

 Projects

Under construction:

METRO M3: Kirazli - Bakirköy-IDO

METRO M4: from Tavsantepe (formerly known as Kaynarca) to Istanbul-Sabiha Gökçen International Airport (7.4 km; 2018)

METRO M5: Üsküdar - Ümraniye - Dudullu - Çekmekköy-Sancaktepe (20 km, 16 stations) - construction began in March 2012, opening 2016 (Project Website)

METRO M7: Mecidiyeköy - Mahmutbey; construction began in Feb 2014; plus extension from Mecidiyeköy via Besiktas to Kabatas, totalling 17.5 km with 18 stations (Project Website)

METRO M8: Cross-city line on Asian side from Bostanci to Dudullu (14.3 km)

METRO M9: Tangential line through western suburbs from Ikitelli Sanayi to Ataköy (13 km)

 

 

 Links

Istanbul Ulasim Metro Operator Official Page

Istanbul Metro Projects

IETT - Tünel and Tram Operator

Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality

Funimag > Tünel

Istanbul Metro at Wikipedia

Marmaray at Wikipedia

Ray Haber (Turkish Rail News)

 Photos
Metro M2 Sishane station Metro train Kabatas Funicular Kabatas Funicular Istanbul Tramway © Burç Acar Kabatas funicular
Photos 1-4 © Francesco Barberini; 5 © Burç Acar; 6 © K.Gullabyan
  

Tünel © UrbanRail.Net Tünel © UrbanRail.Net 2001 © Javier Martínez 2001 © Javier Martínez

Tünel photos thanks to Christian Fuchs and Javier Martínez Cuevas!

 


2004 © UrbanRail.Net by Robert Schwandl.